Investigación y otras actividades

Te invitamos a conocer nuestras actividades de investigación en el área de la Economía de Género: libros, artículos, documentos de trabajo y notas de divulgación, como así también proyectos, cursos, seminarios, conferencias y workshops en donde participamos desde GenLAC-CEDLAS.

Publicaciones

Libros y capítulos de libro

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Resumen
En los mercados laborales de América Latina las mujeres participan menos que los hombres, tienen más probabilidad de estar ocupadas en empleos informales, a tiempo parcial, con menor productividad y menor remuneración, y están subrepresentadas en puestos gerenciales y ejecutivos. Estas brechas de género persisten a pesar de los progresos logrados durante los últimos 50 años, son mayores en la región que en el mundo desarrollado, y principalmente surgen de distorsiones que limitan o sesgan decisiones de formación de capital humano, familia y empleo a lo largo de la vida de las personas. Por lo tanto, para reducirlas se necesitan políticas públicas específicas que ataquen las barreras que limitan la inserción y el progreso de la mujer en el mundo del trabajo. Lograr una mayor igualdad de género en América Latina es necesario por un motivo de equidad, pero también lo es por razones de eficiencia. A continuación se discuten brevemente las razones que justifican la elección de los tres ámbitos que abarca el estudio. Además, se resumen los principales mensajes del diagnóstico y se resaltan los desafíos que se desprenden para la definición de una agenda de políticas.

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Resumen
El objetivo del trabajo es arrojar luz sobre los factores que afectan la participación laboral femenina (PLF) en América Latina, tomando como eje de análisis a la comparación entre México y Perú, dos países que en el contexto de la región presentan varias similitudes y sin embargo son muy distintos en términos de los niveles de participación laboral de las mujeres. A partir del análisis comparativo se busca entender mejor cuáles son los factores que se asocian a mayores tasas de participación y empleo femeninos en la región, como herramienta diagnóstica para nutrir el diseño de políticas públicas que fomenten el empleo femenino y la igualdad de género. El análisis se basa en microdatos de encuestas de hogares de México y Perú para el periodo 1998-2014.

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Resumen
El libro “¿Brechas que se cierran? Aumento y desaceleración de la participación laboral femenina en América Latina” muestra que en América Latina la incorporación de las mujeres al mercado laboral se está desacelerando desde comienzos de los años 2OOO. Mientras que en los noventa la tasa de participación laboral de las mujeres creció aceleradamente, en los 2OOO la velocidad se redujo a un tercio, y en algunos países se detuvo.
– ¿Cuál es la magnitud de este fenómeno?
– ¿Cuáles son sus causas?
– ¿Qué grupos se ven más afectados?

Artículos

Link al documento de trabajo

Abstract
We estimate the short- and long-run labor market impacts of parenthood in a developing country, Chile, based on an event-study approach around the birth of the first child. We find that becoming a mother implies a sharp decline in employment, working hours, and labor earnings, while fathers’ outcomes remain unaffected. Importantly, the birth of the first child also produces a strong increase in labor informality among working mothers (38%). All these impacts are milder for highly educated women. We assess mechanisms behind these effects based on a model economy and find that: (i) informal jobs’ flexible working hours prevent some women from leaving the labor market upon motherhood, (ii) improving the quality of social protection of formal jobs tempers this increase in informality. Our results suggest that mothers find in informal jobs the flexibility needed for family-work balance, although it comes at the cost of deteriorating their labor market prospects.

Link al documento de trabajo

Abstract
Income transfers from social programs are often not gender neutral and should, according to the vast literature on intra-household decision making and allocation, affect the distribution of bargaining power within the household. This result, however, was by and large established under the assumption of marriage stability. If this assumption does not hold (because of divorce or separation), then the positive response of bargaining power to income found in the empirical research may be the artifact of sample selection. In this paper we prove that the marriage stability assumption is wrong, even when applied to seniors. We use a non-contributory pension reform in Argentina, that resulted in an unexpected and substantial increase in permanent income for at least 1.8 million women, to study its effects on outcomes related to both marital stability and women’s bargaining power within the household. We find that the reform increased the probability of divorce/separation among senior highly educated women but had no impact on the loweducated. Instead, the latter gained considerable bargaining power within the household by decreasing the probability of being the only one in charge of household chores in tandem with an increase in their husbands’ participation in these chores.

Link al documento de trabajo

Abstract
We study the behavior of female labor force participation (LFP) over the business cycle by estimating fixed effects models at the country and population-group level, using data from harmonized national household surveys of 18 Latin American countries in the period 1987–2014. We find that female LFP follows a countercyclical pattern—especially in the case of married, with children and vulnerable women—which suggests the existence of an inverse added-worker effect. We argue that this factor may have contributed to the deceleration in female labor supply in Latin America that took place in the 2000s, a decade of unusual high economic growth.

Link al documento de trabajo

Abstract
After half a century of sustained growth, female labor force participation has decelerated in Latin America, especially among married vulnerable women. Based on a large database of microdata from household surveys, this paper documents this recent deceleration and provides evidence on the determinants. We argue that the fast economic growth experienced by the region in the 2000s was an important driving force: lower unemployment and higher earnings of male partners plus increased social assistance may have reduced the pressing need for vulnerable women to take low-quality jobs.

Link al documento de trabajo

Abstract
In this paper, we estimate the impact on female labor force participation of a massive conditional cash transfer program—Universal Child Allowance, AUH—launched in Argentina in 2009. We identify the intention-to-treat effect by comparing eligible and non-eligible women over time through a diff-in-diff methodology. The results suggest a negative and economically significant effect of the program on female labor force participation. The disincentive to participate is present for married women, while the effect is not statistically significant for unmarried women with children. We also find evidence on the heterogeneity of the effect depending on woman’s education, husband’s employment status, number and age of children, and whether the woman is the main responsible of domestic chores. The relatively large value of the benefit and the fact that transfers are mostly directed to mothers may explain the sizeable effect of the program on female labor supply. The welfare implications of the results are not clear and deserve further inspection.

Link al documento de trabajo

Abstract
In 2009 Argentina introduced a large poverty-alleviation program (AUH) that provides monthly cash transfers per child to households without workers in the formal sector. In this paper we study the potential unintended effect of this program on fertility. We apply a difference-in-difference strategy comparing the probability of having a new child among eligible and ineligible mothers both before and after the program inception. The intention to treat estimations suggest a significant positive impact on fertility in households with at least one child (around 2 percentage points), but no significant effect on childless households. Given the short time window since the implementation of the AUH, we are unable to identify whether this positive effect reflects changes in the timing of births or in the equilibrium number of children.

Link al documento de trabajo

Abstract
Fertility rates significantly fell over the last decades in Latin America. In order to assess the extent to which these changes contributed to the observed reduction in income poverty and inequality, we apply microeconometric decomposition to microdata from national household surveys from seven Latin American countries. We find that changes in fertility rates were associated with a nonnegligible reduction in inequality and poverty in the region. The main channel was straightforward: lower fertility implied smaller families and hence larger per capita incomes. Lower fertility also fostered labor force participation, especially among women, which contributed to the reduction of poverty and inequality in most countries, although the size of this effect was smaller.

Abstract
Grandparents are an important source of childcare, in particular when access to formal childcare services is not guaranteed. In this paper, we explore whether employment decisions of mothers of young children are affected by the availability of grandmothers for childcare in Argentina. To overcome the usual identification problem, we exploit a change in retirement requirements introduced in the mid-2000s that induced an arguably exogenous variation in grandmothers’ time constraint. The main results show that working-age mothers co-residing with their retirement-eligible mother or mother-in-law are more likely to participate in the labor market and to be employed. We ask whether this is a time effect or an income effect and find suggestive evidence that the main underlying mechanism is an increase in grandmother’s time. Finally, we also find no evidence that the policy affected fertility or household composition.

Link al documento de trabajo

Abstract
We study the causal effect of motherhood on labour market outcomes in Latin America by adopting an event study approach around the birth of the first child based on panel data from national household surveys for Chile, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay. Our main contributions are: (i) providing new and comparable evidence on the effects of motherhood on labour outcomes in developing countries; (ii) exploring the possible mechanisms driving these outcomes; (iii) discussing the potential links between child penalty and the prevailing gender norms and family policies in the region. We find that motherhood reduces women’s labour supply in the extensive and intensive margins and influences female occupational structure towards flexible occupations— part-time work, self-employment, and labour informality—needed for family–work balance. Furthermore, countries with more conservative gender norms and less generous family policies are associated with larger differences between mothers’ and non-mothers’ labour market outcomes.

Link al documento de trabajo

Abstract
In this paper we analyze the impact of Venezuelan migration on the female labor supply in Colombia. Using a instrumental variable approach we found significant drops in the female labor supply, mainly on those women with lower qualifications. In contrast, we observe significant increases for high-skilled women with family responsibilities, such as childcare. These results are consistent with a redistribution of time use, where women spend fewer hours on household tasks and more time in the labor market. Our results provide novel evidence of the consequences of forced migration between developing countries on the female labor supply.

Link al documento de trabajo

Abstract: In this paper we assess whether changes in labor market decisions upon motherhood lead to potential inefficient allocations of talent. Using an event study approach with retrospective data drawn from SHARE for 29 European countries we show that motherhood effects go beyond the well studied effects of labor market participation decisions: the arrival of the first child substantially affects the uptaking of alternative modes of employment, such as part-time and self-employment, that are characterized by flexible or reduced work schedules but also lower pay on average. We also show that the size of labor market responses to motherhood are larger in societies with more conservative social-norms or with weak policies regarding work-life balance. To assess the effects of motherhood over the allocation of talent, we explore how labor market responses to parenthood vary by alternative measures of talent or ability. We find that all women, even those with the highest level of ability and abler than their husbands face large motherhood effects, while men show virtually no changes in the labor market when becoming fathers. We also find that mothers who become self-employed after the birth of the first child are those that are less entrepreneurial-able according to cognitive ability and personality traits shown to impair business survival. Overall, our results suggest relevant changes in the allocation of talent caused by gender differences in nonmarket responsibilities that can have sizable impacts on aggregate market productivity.

Link al documento de trabajo

Abstract
This paper estimates the effects of a childbirth grant policy introduced in Armenia in 2009 in response to low fertility rates. We employ a quasi-experimental strategy exploiting the timing of the policy change and eligibility rule—women could get a larger transfer only for third and higher order births. We find an overall positive impact of the policy on the fertility of women who already had two births and we do not find heterogeneity in response to the policy by wealth, schooling or residence in rural versus urban area. While Armenia has one of the highest sex imbalances at birth, we do not find that additional newborns are significantly more likely to be male. We do find, however, that parents without any son are more likely to have an additional birth after the policy change in comparison to parents who already have at least one son

Notas en blogs y en los medios

Otras actividades

Proyectos

Se adjudicó un subsidio PICT al proyecto “Brechas de género y el efecto de la maternidad en los mercados laborales de América Latina”, del cual forma parte GenLAC

· Código PICT: 2019-00510.

· Investigadora responsable: Mariana Marchionni; grupo responsable: Inés Berniell, Leonardo Gasparini y Santiago Garganta; grupo colaborador: Jessica Bracco, Matías Ciaschi y Ana Pacheco.

· Link

Un proyecto presentado por el equipo de trabajo compuesto por Inés Berniell, Lucila Berniell, Dolores de la Mata, María Edo y Mariana Marchionni (PI), fue seleccionado y financiado por UNU-WIDER (United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research) con el fin de proveer evidencia al proyecto “Women’s work – routes to economic and social empowerment”, de UNU-WIDER.

· Febrero 2021: El paper generado fue publicado en la serie de documentos de trabajo de UNU-WIDER.
Link al Documento de Trabajo (WIDER)

· Diciembre 2020: El equipo de trabajo presentó dicho artículo en el workshop “UNU-WIDER Women’s Work”
Link al workshop

Cursos, seminarios, conferencias y workshops

Curso de Economía de Género. Maestría en Economía, FCE-UNLP.

Inés Berniell dicta este curso todos los años en la Maestría en Economía de la FCE-UNLP. La economía de género utiliza el análisis económico (marco teórico y herramientas estadísticas) para estudiar los motivos por los que hay diferencias entre hombres y mujeres en variables económicas tales como participación laboral, salarios, ingreso, horas de trabajo, ocupación, tasas de pobreza, tiempo de ocio, entre otras medidas de bienestar. El curso ofrece una visión general del estado actual de la literatura sobre brechas de género, principalmente en los mercados laborales. En clase se discuten investigaciones que indagan sobre diferentes dimensiones de las brechas de género y los factores que las originan, y se analiza también la evidencia empírica sobre la efectividad de políticas diseñadas para reducir dichas brechas. En las clases se hace hincapié en la interacción entre teoría económica y su modelización empírica

Link donde podrás encontrar más información sobre este curso y la Maestría en Economía de la FCE-UNLP: https://www.me.econo.unlp.edu.ar/wp/

Destacados